The limit of Turing Machine
The Turing Machine is the reference for any discussion about Artificial Intelligence (AI)
“A Turing machine is an abstract machine that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape
according to a table of rules; to be more exact, it is a mathematical model that defines such a device”
That is a hold model invented in 1936 by Alan Turing, and also now is an actual reference.
“The Chinese room is a thought experiment presented by the philosopher John Searle
to challenge the claim that it is possible for a computer running a program
to have a "mind" and "consciousness" in the same sense that people do,
simply by virtue of running the right program.”
The experiment imagines to place one computer closed inside one small room (the Chinese room).
Somebody outside the room, give questions at the computer and bring the answers.
The idea is that, if the computer inside have an artificial intelligence, can give right answers at any question.
The human outside the room can’t understand if inside there is a man or a computer.
In 2004, IBM Research manager Charles Lickel, was intrigued by idea to create a machine for win the Jeopardy!,
that is an American television quiz show.
Whit this goal IBM start creation of Watson machine.
The idea of Watson machine is an evolution of “Chinese Room”.
The machine must have the capacity to give right answers at any question of this Quiz.
“Watson is a question answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language”
All this work start from idea to work on symbols.
The Turing Machine supposed to have a list of symbols and write symbols as answer of his work.
The Watson system analyze a big quantity of symbols, words and draws.
In all this strategy there many limitations because is about symbols and knowledge.
Jeopardy quiz isn’t an intelligence test.
Jeopardy test only the knowledge of competitors.
The question are like this:
“IN JULY 2013 THE EUROPEAN UNION SAID THE MILITARY WING OF THIS LEBANESE GROUP IS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION”
“IN 2012 THE NEW YORK TIMES CALLED THE CONFLICT IN THIS LARGEST CENTRAL AFRICAN COUNTRY "THE WORLD'S WORST WAR”
“THE 2001 IMPLOSION OF PITTSBURGH'S THREE RIVERS STADIUM WAS SO CONTROLLED THAT THIS NEW STADIUM 80 FEET AWAY WAS SAFE”
To answer at this questions don’t need any intelligence.
It is enough remember this information from some news and repeat the answers.
Using this as intelligence test we exclude all peoples (or systems) that don’t follows the news.
But look the TV isn’t a necessary condition for to be intelligent.
The biggest inventors of the history (Galileo, Leonardo, Archimedes, Newton, etc.)
are not able to answer at this questions,
but it sure that was intelligent people.
Turing Machine and Watson system presuppose to analyze a sequence or groups of symbols.
When one children born have capacity to learn as walking,
as don’t fall down, and as interact with the world that is completely new for his brain.
The children have a great intelligence, but haven’t capacity to analyze any symbol, any written text.
In the first months don’t understand any words but that don’t means that isn’t intelligent.
We can’t measure the intelligence as capacity to use symbols.
The animals are intelligent.Many kind of intelligence are about interaction with reality and we can’t describe with symbols.
Capacity of one actor, sensibility, humor, etc.
4) Many manual works require intelligence,but that don’t means that the worker is using words in his mind for take any decision during the work.
The words can be one expression of the intelligence, but are not the intelligence.
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